Conversation Highlights: The Sunday Evening Edition, September 8, 2019

Learning through the Lens of Food: Apples

Poetry, Place & Hearth: Apples

Food connects us. It’s an integral part of our cultural identity and is often prepared with the idea of sharing, giving, and enjoying together.  Nothing indicates the beginning of autumn and the fall harvest in Western Massachusetts like the crisp bite of a local apple picked right off the tree, or the sweet taste of a freshly baked apple pie.

Apple season is a beloved time of year in New England with apple orchards preserving our heritage, regional identity, and local landscape. By visiting pick-your-own apple orchards, we meet the farmers that grow our food, learn firsthand how apples grow, and engage in the seasonality of the land and the sense of belonging it instills within us. Traditional recipes, the scenic orchard landscapes, and the representation of apple-picking in literature and art remind us of how the apple has become a rich part of our cultural heritage. Read the rest of this entry »

PYO Apples

Pick Your Own Apples in Western MA

Apples, one of the earliest (and most delicious) signs of fall, have been an important part of New England agriculture for centuries. McIntosh apples are undeniably the most iconic of New England’s apples, and make up over two thirds of the regions apple crop! Macs and countless other delicious and fascinating varieties of apples are grown at orchards across western Massachusetts, and families can enjoy this year’s fantastic apple crop by visiting an orchard to pick or purchase a bushel.

Participate in the tradition of apple-picking and support local agriculture! Check out these orchards and farms in Western Massachusetts for Pick Your Own Apples!  Read the rest of this entry »

Poetry of William Cullen Bryant: The Planting of the Apple-Tree

Poetry of William Cullen Bryant
“The Planting of the Apple-Tree”

Did you know that William Cullen Bryant, a 19th century poet (and Schoolhouse Poet like John Greenleaf Whittier) planted over 800 apple trees on his farm property? While the orchard is no longer active, you can still visit the poet’s homestead in Cummington, MA. A property of The Trustees, The William Cullen Bryant Homestead is open for house tours and other activities in the fall.

While visiting the property, take a look at the scenic Hilltown views of the Westfield River Valley, take a picnic lunch (don’t forget your freshly picked apples!) and read Bryant’s poem “The Planting of an Apple-Tree.

The poem’s various stanzas walk through the passage of time, starting with the planting of the apple tree and ending with the apple tree in its old age, as well as the poet who planted it. The tree is more than just the bearer of fruit, but as Bryant nostalgically mentions, is a tree that represents childhood, home, and identity.  It provides shade on hot days, perfumes the air with the fragrance of springtime, and offers a resting place for playing children in the summer. The apple reminds the poet of New England’s seasonality and the apple-tree represents a unique  American spirit beginning to blossom in the mid-19th century.  Read the rest of this entry »

Culinary & Family History Through the Apple Pie


Where did the saying “Upper crust” come from? According to the U.S. Apple Association, in early America, when times were hard and cooking supplies were scarce, cooks often had to scrimp and save on ingredients. Apple pie was a favorite dish, but to save on lard and flour, only a bottom crust was made. More affluent households could afford both an upper and a lower crust, so those families became known as “the upper crust.”

In 1828 Lydia Maria Child published her book The American Frugal Housewife.  It was a popular book utilized by many 19th century women for its recipes, remedies, and home economics advice.  It also includes a few apple recipes, such as a common recipe for apple pie.  In her 12th edition from 1833 of The American Frugal Housewife, Mrs. Child writes:

Apple Pie
When you make apple pies, stew your apples very little indeed; just strike them through, to make them tender. Some people do not stew them at all, but cut them up in very thin slices, and lay them in the crust.  Pies made in this way may retain more of the spirit of the apple; but I do not think the seasoning mixes in as well.  Put in sugar to your taste; it is impossible to make a precise rule, because apples vary so much in acidity.  A very little salt, and a small piece of butter in each pie, makes them richer.  Clovers and cinnamon are both suitable spice.  Lemon brandy and rose-water are both excellent.  A wine-glass full of each is sufficient for three or four pies.  If your apples lack spirit, grate in a whole lemon. (p.67-68).

Curious to try your hand at apple pie?  Not sure which apples to use?  Ask a farmer!  At many pick your own orchards, or at local farmers’ markets, farmers can usually tell you which apples are best for baking and best for eating. Read the rest of this entry »

Community Apple Celebrations: Featured Events 2016

How Do Apples Grow?

Kettles Full of Apple Chutney

Apple Chutney

When our vegetable garden begins slowing down, we begin apple season. We harvest our own apples, visit friends who have apple trees, and gather apples from wild trees and abandoned orchards. It’s apple time early in the morning before work, late at night when we return home, and on our day off. We dry dehydrators full of apples and line our shelves with many glass jars full of delicious apple rings. We freeze and can loads of apple sauce. We make tray after tray of apple fruit leather. We press and freeze dozens and dozens of jars of cider. And there’s still apples in baskets and boxes scattered about the kitchen and dining room. Our favorite apple final resort? Apple Chutney! We can a couple kettles full of apple chutney in jars and eat it all year. It adds a special flair to a quick rice or quinoa or couscous dinner when we get home late at night.  Read the rest of this entry »

Oak & Acorn: Everything’s Coming up Apples!

Apple Season in New England

There are so many ways in cooking and baking with apples. You can make pies, jellies, cakes, donuts, apple cider and even use them in savory treats.

It’s September in New England and almost autumn which means one of many things, it’s apple season time! For many of us in New England, once we start to see those “pick your own apple” signs, it means a new season of change is coming. In fact, September 22 is the official Autumnal equinox. The full moon this month is so close to the Autumnal equinox that is actually called the Harvest Moon. The Harvest moon gives so much light that it’s said that farmers coined the term because so much extra light was given during this time that farmers had more hours in their day to harvest crops.

When I was a kid growing up in the South, I was one of those people who dreamed of autumn in New England. Any time, I would see a painting or a photograph, it seemed all so dreamy to me… and now here I am living in small town New England with my wonderful six year old!  Read the rest of this entry »

16 Picture Books That Celebrate Apples

Oprn Drdsmr: Kid Lit Musings and Review by Cheli Mennella

A Bushel of Books about Apples

‘Tis the season when orchards bear autumn fruit, and cider is poured into eager cups, and the smell of pie beckons from the oven. ‘Tis the season for apples.

Hand-picked from dozens of titles, here’s a bushel of picture books that celebrate the apple. There are a few new books, books about the life cycle of apples, apple–picking, and America’s mythic hero, Johnny Appleseed, plus some apple arithmetic, and books with apple pies baked into their stories. Enjoy!  Read the rest of this entry »

Hilltown Families on Mass Appeal: Debut of Seasonal Cultural Itinerary

Hilltown Families on Mass Appeal: August Segment
Debut of Learning Ahead: Cultural Itinerary for Western MA

Hilltown Families and Mass Appeal (a weekday, hour-long lifestyle program on NBC) have teamed up to offer a live monthly segment on WWLP 22News!  Each month, Hilltown Families’ Founder & Executive Director, Sienna Wildfield,  joins Mass Appeal hosts to talk about ways to engage in your community while supporting the interests and education of your children (and yourselves!).

This monthly segment continued on Monday, August 29, 2016. This month Sienna and Lauren talked about agricultural fairs, fall festivals, one room schoolhouses and apples featured in the debut of Learning Ahead: Cultural Itinerary for Western MA:

Download a copy of Learning Ahead: Cultural Itinerary for Western MA. (38 page PDF) for the fall season.

Mass Appeal is a live weekday program that airs at 11am on 22News (Springfield, MA).  Our next visit to the Mass Appeal studios will be September 26th, 2016!




Learning Ahead: Sept & Oct Cultural Itinerary for Western MA

Learning Ahead:
Cultural Itinerary for Western Massachusetts
Seasons: Sept & Oct

Who am I? Where am I? These are the fundamental questions proposed by the humanities. Inquiries related to local history, literature, and education, inspire us to think deeply about the places where we live and how our identity fits into the context of our community and the seasons.

Learning Ahead: Cultural Itinerary for Western Massachusetts is a new bimonthly publication produced by Hilltown Families that sheds light on embedded learning opportunities found in cultural resources that exist within the geography, history, and cultural traditions of Western Massachusetts.

With these downloadable seasonal itineraries, self-directed teens, lifelong learners, and families are encouraged to engage together in cultural opportunities that support similar interests, resulting in a shared history, strengthening sense of place.

Looking through a seasonal lens, our debut Cultural Itinerary for Western Massachusetts is for the months of September and October and includes:

  • Participation in local CULTURE: Agricultural Fairs and Fall Festivals
  • PLACEMAKING through annual events: Guided Tours and Plein Air Paint Outs
  • Gathering and preparing seasonal FOOD: Apples and Pumpkins
  • VALUE based engagement: Intergenerational, Skillsharing, and Community Meals
  • Marking the SEASON with annual events: Back-to-School and Halloween
  • Engage in local HABITAT: Nature Trails and Fall Foliage
  • INTEREST based learning: Domestic Arts, Pastry Arts, and Paranormal

Click here to download PDF (38 pages).

Mass Humanities This program is funded in part by Mass Humanities, which receives support from the Massachusetts Cultural Council and is an affiliate of the National Endowment for the Humanities.








Autumn Icons: Apples, Pumpkins, Autumn Foliage & Fall Festivals

Western Massachusetts’ Fall Classics Inspire Community-Based Learning

Another glorious New England autumn is here, bringing with it shorter days, cooler nights, and a cornucopia of seasonal and cultural darlings to celebrate! Families in western Massachusetts can celebrate fall by visiting local farms, enjoying fall-harvested foods,  leaf-peeping, and engaging in cultural celebrations honoring the season.

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Apples, one of the earliest (and most delicious) signs of fall, have been an important part of New England agriculture for centuries. McIntosh apples are undeniably the most iconic of New England’s apples, and make up over two thirds of the regions apple crop! Macs and countless other delicious and fascinating varieties of apples are grown at orchards across western Massachusetts, and families can enjoy this year’s fantastic apple crop by visiting an orchard to pick or purchase a bushel. Find an orchard to pick your own by taking advice from our readers or perusing our list of local PYO orchards.

Learning how to pick apples can be an excellent mini lesson in botany.  In this short video, from the New England Apple Growers Association, not only do they share the etiquette of PYO orchards, but the how to properly pick:

Harvested later than apples, pumpkins are yet another sure sign of fall that somehow make their way onto our front steps and into our food just as the chilly air of fall arrives. Called “pompions” by the first European colonists, pumpkins were a food essential to winter survival – and they were grown in many more varieties than they typically are today. Keep the history of pumpkins in mind this fall while eating, picking, and decorating with the squash cultivars, and be sure to visit a local farm for pick-your-own pumpkins. After Halloween, leave your family’s jack-o-lanterns around and watch them rot – it makes a cheap, easy, and disgusting (yet fascinating) science project!

In the late fall, just after Thanksgiving, tree farms open, giving families an opportunity to pick the perfect locally grown evergreen tree for their holiday celebration as fall departs and winter arrives.

For more information about fall pick-your-own opportunities, check out Berkshire Grown’s Map-O-Licious and CISA’s local foods Farm Guide.


In addition to bountiful harvests, autumn brings with a dramatic change in the color scheme of the local landscape. Leaf peeping is a favorite activity of folks from out of state – and for good reason! Make time to get outside as a family this fall and explore the brilliant red, orange, and yellow that the woods have to offer. The best leaf peeping excursions are ones that include not only woods walking but a view from a high place. We recommend…

Pioneer Valley:


Berkshire County


After apple-picking, pumpkin carving, and leaf peeping have all been crossed off of autumn bucket lists, there are still numerous fall festivals to enjoy! Local festivals held during the autumn months celebrate not only to bounty of the season, but the local cultural traditions associated with it.

The first of such festivals is the annual North Quabbin Garlic & Arts Festival held in Orange on September 26th and 27th. Self-described as, “two days of peace, love, and garlic,” the festival draws crowds to celebrate local art and agricultural, and showcases the best that the region has to offer within these realms.

Following the Garlic & Arts Festival is Conway’s Festival of the Hills, the highlight of which is a skillet toss competition. Held on Sunday, October 5th, the Festival of the Hills also features a log-splitting contest (with both men’s and women’s divisions), a 10k road race, and children’s activities.

During Columbus Day weekend, families can head into the northern hilltowns for the beloved Ashfield Fall Festival, which fills downtown Ashfield with delicious fall food, local vendors, and – best of all – a midway filled with kid-made and kid-run games! This year’s Ashfield Fall Festival will be held on October 11th and 12th, and will feature a special PumkinGames event (think musical pumpkins, pumpkin bowling, etc.) at 12noon on the 11th. Further fall frolicking and pumpkin-rolling can be done at the Westhampton Fall Festival, a late-October event which features the Great Pumpkin Roll – an annual tradition that sends scores of pumpkins rolling down a very steep hill.

Western Massachusetts’ fall festival season concludes with the 21st annual Franklin County CiderDays, held on November 7th and 8th. A weekend jam-packed with educational opportunities, tastings, tours, and more, CiderDays spotlights the tradition of cider-making in Franklin County by honoring the history of the art in local communities and bringing cider-makers together to share the tips, tricks, and taste of the trade. While some CiderDays events require tickets to be purchased in advance, many tastings, tours, and other events are free and open to all ages – and all require a visit to the beautiful hills of the northeastern corner of our region.

Q&A: Organic PYO Apples in Western MA


Philip Korman writes, “For a listing of PYO where the farmer is encouraged to post growing practices:”

Wanted: Organic PYO apples! Pilar Goldstein-Dea of Easthampton writes, “We’re wondering where we might pick organic apples locally. Where’s your favorite organic pick-your-own orchard?”

  • Erin Brainard writes, “Outlook Farm (Route 66, Westhampton). Can’t wait, the kids love it.”
  • Chip Konowitz writes, “Bear Swamp Orchard in Ashfield.”
  • Marissa Tenenbaum Potter writes, “Apex in Shelburne.”
  • Annie Bob DeCoteau writes, “If you don’t mind the pretty drive- Dwight Miller in Dummerston, VT or Green Mountain in Putney.”
  • Tish Serrani writes, “Outlook is not organic but they are a great local farm.”
  • Amy Wasserman writes, “There are no organic orchards in MA, unfortunately. But I know there are trees at the Yiddish Book Center and also at Eric Carle Museum, and I don’t think they are sprayed with anything. The surrounding grass might have chemicals. If you are REALLY concerned, call Hampshire College grounds dept. Many local orchards are IPM – you have to ask the farmers. Apex is low spray/IPM with great apples that we buy at Amherst Wednesday and Winter Markets…not sure if they are PYO but I know they are in the Shelburne area.”
  • Jenny Underdown writes, “There is an organic orchard in Ashfield: Bear Swamp Orchard…Just went there last weekend. Great place. Cider too!”
  • Maribeth Blankenburg Ritchie writes, “There is a certified organic pick your own in Ashfield on Hawley Rd. Bear Swamp Orchards, they make great cider.”
  • Chris Sanborn writes, “Apex is not organic. Dwight Miller in VT and Bear Swamp are the closest ones I know of that are open to the public. IPM constitutes most orchards in MA.”
  • Jaimee Roncone writes, “Bear Swamp, Ashfield.”
  • Jennifer ‘kippy’ York  writes, “Sentinel Farm on Cottage St. in Belchertown!”
  • Cheryl Svoboda Asher writes, “My 2 year old granddaughter went to Outlook last weekend and had the time of her life. She and my daughter picked 75 apples for about $20. I too, have always thought Outlook as an organic farm They are located in Westhampton for those that do not know. They will being gong again this time with me! Fun activity no matter where you go and we scrub the apples to be doubly sure.”
  • Jose Santiago writes, “Outlook Farm. We went last Saturday. $25 for a bag.”
  • Belle Rita Novak writes, “An orchardist from New Hampshire once told me that it is very difficult to grow organic apples; not impossible, but difficult. Don’t expect them to look pretty.”
  • April Pitroff Varellas writes, “Bear Swamp Orchard, Ashfield.”
  • Pilar Goldstein-Dea writes, “Hurrah! Thank You!”

16 Community Highlights: Apples to Alpacas. Quillwork to Dinosaur Tracks.

It’s a great weekend for pressing, baking and eating apples! Check our Best Bets this week for a list of fall festivals too! (Photo credit: Sienna Wildfield).

Apples to Alpacas. Quillwork to Dinosaur Tracks. Medieval to Colonial…. These are just a few of the learning highlights we’re featuring this week! Get out into your community and learn while you play! And be sure to check our list of supporting book titles to supplement the learning on the different topics highlighted each week. Purchase them for your family library, or check them out from the public library!


When you think of New England in the autumn, fall festivals, foliage and apples come to mind! This weekend families can learn about apple history, join in an apple bake off, participate in an apple fundraiser, or just celebrate the season at an Apple Harvest Festival. On both Saturday & Sunday, Sept 29th & 30th, families can step into the 19th century at Old Sturbridge Village for Apple Days – a weekend full of fall activities like cider pressing and apple picking (and eating!). Families can learn about the many antique apple varieties that are grown in the village’s orchards, and then learn about the process of picking apples, storing them, and using them for foods like sauce, pies, and cider.

Bakers can join in the Great Barrington Farmers’ Market’s Apple Cook Off on Saturday, Sept 29th! The event challenges community members to produce unique and delicious dishes, the main ingredient of which is local apples. There are separate age groups for kids and adults, and prizes will be given to dishes that are most unique, most creative, and most delicious. Also on Saturday is the Apple Harvest Festival on the Amherst Town Common featuring a crafts fair and lots of special children’s activities including hay rides, scarecrow making, pumpkin decorating, and cider making!

On Sunday, Sept 30th, Apple Spree takes place at Look Park in Florence, a fundraiser for the Northampton Survival Center – for each peck of apples purchased by a family, a peck will be donated to the center. There will be live music from Appalachian Still, an apple car race for kids to enter, an apple cooking contest, and, of course, lots of delicious apples to enjoy!


Do your kids love cartoons or comic strips? Syndicated cartoonist Hilary Price (the brains behind “Rhymes With Orange”) will speak at the Leverett Library on Tues. evening, Oct 2nd about how she became a cartoonist and what it’s like to produce a daily comic strip. Great for kids interested in using their artistic talents for humor! On Thursday, Oct 4th, Modern Myths comic book store in Northampton is hosting a series of afternoon comic-making parties for kids – every Thursday afternoon in October! The workshops present an opportunity for kids to learn about the language of comics and to learn how to express themselves through comic drawings and storylines. Both events are free


A couple of community events happen on Saturday, Sept 29th that take a unique look at local history through the lens of the season. Families can visit Historic Deerfield to learn about the history and cultural significance of scarecrows! Once used to guard crops, scarecrows are now a Halloween tradition. Families can even make their own! Or you could also head to Westfield for Colonial Harvest Days! This free event features a Revolutionary War reenactment, carriage and wagon rides, live music, the local celebrity Town Crier contest, a harvest hoedown and fiddle contest (open to the community!), local art and artisan goods, and more! Learn about the history of Westfield’s earliest days and the Revolutionary War.

For older students on Saturday morning, Sept 29th, they learn about how the presidency came about in the United States at the Sixteen Acres Library in Springfield! Baypath College professor Dr. Donald Murphy will present a lecture on the roots of presidency in the Constitution, and then will discuss how the first three people to hold office helped to shape the important position. This free lecture is particularly relevant, considering the upcoming election, and can help to supplement students’ in-depth studies of American history.

On Sunday, Sept 30th, the Whately Historical Society is hosting a free fall festival with a special exhibit, “Whately Schools Yesterday & Today.” Come check out a small town annual harvest/history celebration!

During the weekdays, history can be explore through math, fashion design and culinary arts! On Monday morning, Oct. 1st, Storrowton Village in West Springfield is offering a special program on math designed for students in grades 4-6 (or working on math that correlates to those grades). There will be hands-on activities that incorporate 19th century history with mathematical concepts, problem solving, and vocabulary! In the evening on Monday, the Wistariahurst Museum in Holyoke hosts historian Ned Lazaro, who will share the story of Violet Angotti, a Northampton dress designer during the early 20th century. The talk will discuss how, despite her profession becoming gradually more and more obsolete, Angotti worked to maintain her craft. Best for older students – pairs well with studies of technological advances and cultural change throughout the 20th century. Then on Tuesday afternoon, Oct. 2nd, Ventfort Hall in Lenox hosts, “Food and Feasting in the Middle Ages,” a tea-and-talk featuring tastings of traditional medieval foods and interesting facts about the intersection of food and social class during the middle ages. Best for older students, the event will also cover food-related beliefs and practices popular during the middle ages.


On both Saturday & Sunday, Sept 29th & 30th, Sweet Brook Farm in Williamstown celebrates National Alpaca Farm Days. Families can learn about these animals and the gorgeous fiber they provide local farmers. There will be spinning and weaving demonstrations and free hands-on opportunities.

At the Berkshire Museum in Pittsfield on Saturday morning, Sept 29th, the museum hosts a workshop on quillwork as part of the museum’s current Rethink! American Indian Art exhibit. Visitors can try hands-on quillwork themselves, while learning about its place in Native American history and culture.

On Sunday afternoon, Sept 30th, families can visit the Wistariahurst Museum to learn about dinosaur tracks and the 200 million-year-old history of Holyoke! Paleontologist Patrick Getty will teach kids about the dinosaurs who once inhabited the valley, and kids will get to do dino-themed hands-on activities.

List of Weekly Suggested EventsFind out about these events and over 160 other events & activities happening all next week in our List of Weekly Suggested Events.


Local Apple Bake-Off at Greenfield Farmers’ Market

Local Apples Highlighted at Greenfield Farmers’ Market this Weekend

Apple Bake-Off at Greenfield Farmers' Market on Saturday, Sept. 24th, 2011. (Photo credit: Sienna Wildfield)

In celebration of apple season, the Greenfield Farmers’ Market is hosting an Apple Bake-Off on Saturday the 24th! Any recipe that uses local apples is eligible, and entries will be judged based on presentation, taste, and texture. Prizes range from a Farmers’ Market gift certificate to t-shirts to tote bags! In order to be eligible, entries must be brought to the market by 10:30am. Please provide a recipe for your apple creation, as they will be compiled to create a collection for sharing. Also include contact information in case you win a prize but are no longer at the market once judging has finished!

Q&A: Where’s Your Favorite Apple Orchard in Western MA?


Clarkdale Fruit Farm in Deerfield, MA offer PYO apples. (Photo credit: Sienna Wildfield)

Does anyone have suggestions for favorite apple orchards in the area?

  • Maureen Cooper MacPhail responds: Echo Hill in Monson, MA
  • Rebekah Markham responds: Quonquont Farm in Whately, MA
  • Lauren Abend responds: Bear Swamp Orchard in Ashfield, MA. Pick-Your-Own Organic; as well as, unpasteurized cider.
  • Lisa Fedora Lansing responds: Outlook Farms in Westhampton MA & Atkins Farm in Amherst, MA.
  • Jenna Smith responds: Lakeview Orchard in Lanesboro, MA, and they have awesome fresh apple cider donuts!
  • Jennifer York responds: Sentinel Farm in Belchertown, MA on Cottage St.
  • Christine Hebert responds: Cold Spring Orchard in Belchertown, MA

Take the Family Apple Picking


Ireland Orchard Apples-1

Apples are becoming ripe for the picking all over Western Massachusetts. (Photo credit: Sienna Wildfield)

Apple season is here and there are many great orchards your family can visit to pick your own peck of apples.

Ireland Street Apple Orchards in West Chesterfield use to be where my family would go, but after 20+ years of being in the apple orchard business Fred and Millie Chick have retired.

You can pick your own apples at a number of Local Hero farms or pick some up at a local retailer. In my search for local PYO apple orchards in the hilltowns and valley, I can across this list of local farms.  Give a call before heading over to confirm availability and time to pick.

Pressing Apple Cider

Pressing apple cider. (Photo credit: Sienna Wildfield)

  • Apex Orchards
    153 Peckville Road
    Shelburne, MA 01370
    Tele: 625-2744
  • Atkins Farms
    1150 West Street
    Amherst, MA 01002
    Tele: 253-9528
  • Clarkdale Fruit Farms
    303 Upper Road
    Deerfield, MA 01342
    Tele: 772-6797
  • Outlook Farm
    136 Main Road (Route 66)
    Westhampton, MA 01027
    Tele:  529-9388

    Roasting apples over an open fire

    Baking apples over an open fire. (Photo credit: Sienna Wildfield)

  • Pine Hill Orchards
    248 Greenfield Road
    Colrain, MA 01340
    Tele: 624-3325
  • Quonquont Farm
    9 North Street
    Whately, MA 01093
    Tele: 575-4680

Where did the saying “Upper crust” come from? According to the U.S. Apple Association, in early America, when times were hard and cooking supplies were scarce, cooks often had to scrimp and save on ingredients. Apple pie was a favorite dish, but to save on lard and flour, only a bottom crust was made. More affluent households could afford both an upper and a lower crust, so those families became known as “the upper crust.”

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